CCSS supported conducting a diagnostic study on Underage Enrolment in Primary Schools in Malawi. It was contracted by Palladium who are implementing the Traction programme in Malawi. Traction is a 5 year, DFID funded programme running from 2019-2024. Traction tackles solvable elements of the complex problems that hold back growth and effective public service provision in Malawi. Traction seeks out and brings together individuals and organisations with the motivation, influence/ credibility and experience to find solutions, while supporting them to deliver change. Using a Harvard University Problem Driven Iterative Adaptation (PDIA) tool, the study identified three main causes of underage enrolment: (i)Limited supervision of policy by MoEST and Local Education authorities; (ii) poorly implemented school feeding program; (iii) insufficient number of pre-schools facilities. PDIA, is a step-by-step approach which helps to break down a problem to its root causes, identify entry points, search for possible solutions, take action, reflect upon what you have learned, adapt and then act again.